Early San Ildefonso Pottery Innovators

symbols, were used as a foundation for revival and innovation.

Around 1919-1920, Maria Martinez and her husband Julian Martinez discovered/invented the now-classic black-on-black pottery style. Despite the folklore that it was a secretive process, they quickly shared the information about making this style of pottery, and it revolutionized the economy and life of the pueblo. It was an exciting time for potters. They had an entirely new process for making pottery, new designs, new information, and a newly developing market for their folk art pottery in places such as Santa Fe and Taos, New Mexico. In this period of the 1920s to about 1940, the potters were unencumbered by “tradition” and looked beyond the Pueblos for inspiration. The result was amazing originality in the designs and shapes of their pottery.

In the Pueblos, women would typically make and polish the pottery, while the men would paint the designs. While Maria and Julian excelled as potters and promoters and eventually became world-famous, other potters such as Susana Aguilar, Ramona Gonzales, and Tonita Roybal were vital to the rapidly changing pottery movement. In the 1930’s the pottery of San Ildefonso would change further as a few men married women from other Pueblos. These women brought a new dimension to work already being created. Rose Gonzales (San Juan), Rosalie Aguilar (Picuris), and Juanita Gonzales(Taos) were among the first potters to begin carving into the clay to create their designs instead of painting imagery on the surface. They added another dimension to what could be done with the clay and created a stylistic change that still reverberates through the pottery market.

While there was a vibrancy to this period of work, it did not last long. The Great Depression of the 1930s and World War II reduced the demand for pottery, which had been growing throughout the 1920s. Many of these remarkable potters and painters passed away by the late 1940s, and many of their original shapes and designs disappeared from memory. It would be the next generation of potters starting in the 1950s, especially the 1960s, who would look to Maria Martinez, the one constant for nearly a century, as the bridge between the first pottery revival and arrival of Pueblo pottery as fine art. But for this next generation, the innovation and experimentation of their parents and grandparents would now be viewed as the traditions of the past.

Potters on the page listed alphabetically:

Rosalie Aguilar


Susana Aguilar


Juanita Gonzales


Ramona Gonzales


 Juanita Pena


 Rose Gonzales

(1900 -1989)

Anna Montoya Martinez


 Isabel Montoya Atencio 


 Isabel Pena


 Tonita Roybal


Desideria Montoya Sanchez 



Tonita Roybal (1892-1945) & Juan Cruz Roybal (1896-1990)

Juan Cruz and Tonita Roybal working on their pottery. Photo by T. Harmon Parkhurst, Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), 004032.

Juan Cruz and Tonita Roybal are working on their pottery. Photo by T. Harmon Parkhurst, Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), 004032.

Tonita Roybal has been called “One of the finest potters of the twentieth century.”  She learned to make pottery from her mother, Dominguita Pino Martinez (1860-1948).  Her brother, Cresencio Martinez (1879-1918), married Anna Montoya(Maria’s sister).  She was also an aunt to Santana Roybal, who later married Adam Martinez (Maria’s son).  Tonita was married twice.  Her first husband was Alfredo Montoya (1890-1913), and then in 1916, she married Juan Cruz Roybal.   Among her descendants are JD Roybal (painter) and Margaret Lou Roybal-Gutierrez (potter).

Tonita and Juan Roybal Large Prayer feather Design jar1Tonita began making pottery in 1909. Starting in 1917, Juan started to paint some of her pottery, and after 1930 he painted a majority of the pieces.  When Tonita made the pottery and did the painting, these pieces were signed, “Tonita.”  When she made the vessel and Juan painted it, they were signed, “Tonita and Juan.”   Kenneth Chapman commented in a letter on the quality and value of her work at the time, “Tonita Roybal does equally fine work, and I may be able to get just what you want from her if Maria does not get back to work soon.  Tonita won first prize for her old-fashioned red San Ildefonso ware, with decorations in black (black-on-red pottery).  Her husband, Juan Cruz, runs Julian a close second in decorating pottery.  She put a price of $12.00 each on jars 8″ in diameter and got it! It is hard on some of us poor ethnologists who have been encouraging it, but it has made an incredible difference in San Ildefonso life, and we are strong for it”.   

Tonita’s mother was famous for her “black-on-red” style of pottery, and this was a style that Tonita quickly mastered.  After 1920 and the advent of black-on-black pottery, Tonita invented the red-on-red technique with the white outlines.  Both Tonita and Juan were fascinated by prehistoric pottery.  Those designs and their influences can often be seen in their work.  After 1913 she began, “combining the layout of Nampeyo’s Sikyatki Revival style with elements from Acoma and elsewhere.” By 1925 Tonita was at the peak of her career.  Her early death in 1945 left only a small amount of creative and innovative work that still inspires us with its unique use of varied Native designs from prehistoric to regional influence.

Tonita ROybal black red bowldTonita Roybal Large Sun Design Jar1dTonita Roybal Bird Wing Jar1dTonita ROybal GroupTonita Roybal Jar with Feathers1aTonita Roybal Gunmetal Jar1ctonita roybal small red plate1a


Tonita roybal Bird Wing Bowl1bTonita Roybal Jar with Butterfly Designb Tonita Roybal Kiva Bowl1bTonita Roybal Gunmetal Jar1cTonita Roybal Black on Red Jar1cTonita Roybal Jar with Mountain Designs1cTonita and Juan Roybal Large Prayer feather Design jar1b Tonita Juan Roybal Small Bowl1a

Susana Martinez Aguilar (1876-1947)

Susana Aguilar with her pottery. The bowls by her feet are a distinctive early style of white-on-red ware. Photo by T. Harmon Parkhurst, Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), 043608.

Susana Aguilar with her pottery. The bowls by her feet are a distinctive early style of white-on-red ware. Photo by T. Harmon Parkhurst, Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), 043608.

Susana was the wife of Ignacio Aguilar (1872-1945).  She began making pottery in the 1890s and later taught her daughter-in-law Rosalie Aguilar how to make pottery. She had been making more traditional utilitarian San Ildefonso pottery, as shown in the photograph to the above right.  However, she began making black-on-black, polychrome, and red-on-red style pottery in the 1920s.  In 1925 she began to sign her pottery.  Jonathan Batkin wrote of her pottery, “Susana was a skilled potter whose work has been unfairly overlooked by many.  Her pots are among the most finely made of the 1920s and 1930s.”.  While she made the vessels and decorated some of them, most were painted by her husband and son Joe Aguilar.


Susana Aguilar Open Bowl1a susana-aguilar-plate-with-butterfly-design1 susana-aguilar-bowl-with-avanyu1a susana-aguilar-red-plate2 susana-aguilar-pair1a


Susana Aguilar Bear Paw Plate1b Susana Aguilar Plate with BUtterfly Design1a Susana Aguilar Red plate1a

Rosalie Simbola Aguilar (1898-1946) & Joe Aguilar (1898-1965)

Rosalie Aguilar with carved and painted pottery. Photo by T. Harmon Parkhurst, Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), 004140. 

Rosalie Aguilar with carved and painted pottery. Photo by T. Harmon Parkhurst, Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), 004140.

Rosalie was originally from Picuris Pueblo and married Joe Aguilar in 1922.  Together they had 11 children.  She learned to make pottery from her mother-in-law Susana, who was a very accomplished potter. Joe painted most of their pieces of pottery.  In the 1930’s she was among the first, along with Rose Gonzales (1909-1989), to begin carving pottery.  Their carving style was very similar in style with a cameo, or very shallow carving form of appearance.

rosalie-aguilar-carved-bowl-with-clouds1b Rosalie Aguilar Geometric Plate1 rosalie-and-joe-aguilar-fineline-palte1 rosalie-aguilar-bowl-with-lightning-designs1b rosalie-aguilar-red-avanyu-bowl


Rosalie and Joe Aguilar Red Carved Bowl1b Rosalie and Joe Aguilar Plate1b

Ramona Sanchez Gonzales (1885-1934)

Ramona Gonzales with her husband, Juan Gonzales and daughter Marie. Photo by T. Harmon Parkhurst, Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), 003774.

Ramona Gonzales, with her husband, Juan Gonzales, and daughter Marie. Photo by T. Harmon Parkhurst, Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), 003774.

Ramona Gonzales was one of the early potters, along with Maria Martinez,  to help promote the black-on-black pottery of San Ildefonso pueblo.  She was the step-mother of Blue Corn & Lorenzo Gonzales and Rose Gonzales’ mother-in-lawwhom she taught to make pottery.  Her innovative pottery included not only black-on-black ware but also more intricate polychrome and red-on-red painted vessels.  Her work is among the most difficult to find, as she signed her pieces for such a short time before her passing in 1934.  Her innovative style continues in her descendants, such as Tse-Pe Gonzales (1940-2000) and Russell Sanchez. 

Ramona Gonzales Polychrome Polate ramona-sanchez-geometric-plate1b ramona-gonzales-pair


Ramona Gonzales Bowl with Plant Design1c Ramona Sanchez Fineline red bowl1c Ramona Sanchez Gonzales Larged

Juanita Gonzales (1909-1988) & Louis “Wo-Peen” Gonzales (1907-1990)

Juanita Wo Peen Gonzales

Juanita Gonzales was originally from Taos Pueblo.  She married Louis “Wo-Peen” Gonzales (1907-1990), a son of Juan and Philomena Gonzales.  His Tewa name, “Wo-Peen,” means Medicine Mountain. She met him in a hospital after he lost his arm in a hunting accident.  Louis was a gifted artist and attended the San Ildefonso School of painters in the 1920s.  After losing his right arm in an accident, he taught himself to paint again with his left hand. 

Juanita learned to make pottery from her sister-in-law, Rose Gonzales (1909-1989).  Rose is credited with beginning the carved pottery style at San Ildefonso in the early 1930s.  Juanita’s carved pottery has a very similar style of carving and imagery, as with Rose’s work.  While Juanita made the vessels, she also did the carving, while Louis painted any designs.

Juanita Gonzales Carved Avanyu Jar1c juanita-gonzales-small-jar1a Juanita Gonzales Avanyu carved Bowl1 juanita-gonzales-avanyu-jar1 juanita-gonzales-canister


Juanita Gonzales Jar iwth Avanyu1b Juanita Gonzales Carved avanyu bowl1b Juanita Gonzales Carved bowl1b

Rose Gonzales (1900 -1989)

Rose Gonzales

Rose Gonzales was one of the early innovators of deeply carved pottery at San Ildefonso pueblo in the 1930s. She was originally from San Juan Pueblo and married Robert Gonzales in 1920. Her carved pottery was a cameo in appearance as it is not deep and ends on the sharp edge of her pottery.


rose-gonzales-red-cloud-jar1a rose-gonzales-plate-with-carved-design1b rose-gonzales-red-pair rosegonzales1a rose-gonzales-long-neck-jar1c


Rose Gonzales Jar iwth Feathers1c rosegonzales2f

Juanita Montoya Pena (1900 -1987)  & Tony Pena (1898-1984)

Juanita Pena holding her daughter. Photo by Harold Kellog, Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), 047580.

Juanita Pena is holding her daughter. Photo by Harold Kellog, Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), 047580.

Juanita Pena has been an enigma in San Ildefonso pottery.  Her work can be found in numerous books, and a variety of photos of her are found in various archives, yet there is almost no printed information on her life or family.  However, the pottery created by Juanita and Tony was outstanding in both form and design.  They began with black-on-black ware, and in the 1930s, their work evolved into intricately carved designs. Juanita was related to Martina Vigil Montoya (1856-1916) & Florentino Montoya (1858-1918) (who were known for their polychrome pottery).  Tony was related to Encarnacion Pena (Soqueen), famous as a traditional style painter and part of the San Ildefonso school of painters.  They had at least four children, Ignacio (b. 1920) and Maria Susanita (b. 1925), Rosenita (b. 1926), and Philomena (b. 1928), but none continued the pottery-making tradition.  They continued to make pottery into the 1950s, but then they stopped as they both were very involved in religious and Kiva activities at the Pueblo, which required full-time participation.


juanita-pena-group1b tony-and-juanita-pena-avanyu-jar1 juanita-pena-painted-bowl1b juanita-pena-group juanita-pena-group2


Juanita Pena Bowl with Avanyu1b Juanita Pena Bowl1b Juanita and Tony rain Avanyu Bowl1c Tony and Juanita Pena Avanyu Jar1b

Maximiliana “Anna” Montoya Martinez (1885-1955)

Maria Martinez, left, and her sister Anna Montoya, right. Photo by T. Harmon Parkhurst, Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), 003791.

  Maria Martinez, left, and her sister Anna Montoya, right. Photo by T. Harmon Parkhurst, Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), 003791.

Anna Montoya was the eldest sister of noted potter Maria Martinez (1887-1980).  She was married to Cresencio Martinez(1879-1918).  After discovering the process of making black-on-black pottery, Anna quickly adopted the style of her work.  Cresencio painted many of their early polychrome pieces, but after he died in 1918, Anna painted her pieces.  She became an accomplished painter, and Maria noted that “everyone bothered Anna to put designs” on their pottery.



Anna Montoya PRayer Feather Jar1a

Anna Martinez Prayer Feather Bowl1a



Anna Montoya Candlesticks1b

Desideria Montoya Sanchez (1889-1982)

Desideria Sanchez circa 1960. Courtesy L. Paulin.
Desideria Sanchez circa 1960. Courtesy L. Paulin.

Desideria was a sister of noted potter Maria Martinez.  She often worked with her husband, Donicio, who painted some of her pottery.  Her children Juanita Roybal, Pilar Aguilar, and Santiago Sanchez, did not continue the pottery-making tradition.  However, Santiago’s wife, Angelita Sanchez, is a well-known potter.   She also created elegant black-on-black pottery, but her forms and painted designs are distinctly different from those of Maria & Julian.


Juanita Montoya Vigil (1898 -1933)

Juanita Vigil at Frijoles, New Mexico, Grant Fitch, Circa 1930. Palace of the Governors Archive. Negative #04152

Juanita Montoya Vigil was a daughter of Reyes Pena and Tomas Montoya and the youngest sister of Maria Martinez, and a sister of Desideria Sanchez (1889-1982), Clara Montoya (1909-1997), and Maximilliana “Anna” Martinez (1885-1955). She was married to Romando Vigil, who was a famous painter. She was the mother of Carmelita Dunlap (b. 1925) and Albert Vigil (b. 1927).

There is no yet known authentically documented pieces of her pottery in public collections.  Her pieces are often misattributed and actually work by Juanita Gonzales or Juanita Pena.

Check out the online article, “In Search of Juanita Montoya Vigil (1898-1933), for a new look into her pottery.



Isabel Pena (ca. 1881 -1960)

Isabel Pena was a granddaughter of Cipriana Pena and a daughter of Tonita Pena (ca 1847-1910), known for making large storage vessels. Isabel was the wife of Pasqual Martinez.  Her daughters Teresita Martinez and Petronella Martinez, both were known for making pottery. Isabel’s descendants continue to make classic style pottery, including her great-grandson Elvis Torres.


Isabel Montoya Atencio (1890-1996)

Isabel Montoya was Nicolasa Montoya’s daughter (the aunt who taught Maria Martinez to make pottery).  She was sister Rayita Montoya, Santana Montoya, and Alfredo Montoya (the first husband of Tonita Roybal).   Among her children, Gilbert Atencio is known primarily for his paintings.  Her daughters Helen Gutierrez and Angelita Sanchez are both well-known potters.





Teresita Martinez (1917-1943)

Teresita Matinez was the great-granddaughter of Cipriana Pena and a granddaughter of Tonita Pena (ca 1847-1910), known for making large storage vessels.  She was the daughter of Isabel Pena and a sister of Petronella Martinez.  She worked on pottery with her mother and carved most of her pottery.  She also made pieces with her husband, Juan, whom she married in 1933.



Rayita Gonzales (1902-1982)

Rayita Gonzales was a sister of Louis “Wo-Peen” Gonzales. Her sister, Raymoncita Gonzales, was also a well-known potter. She is known for her deeply carved pottery from the 1930s. Her parents were Filomena and Juan Gonzales.


Carved jar by Rayita Gonzales, ca 1930’s.



Simona Pena Montoya Naranjo (1902-1982)

Simona Pena Montoya Naranjo (1902-82)  was the daughter of Juan and Isabelita Pena.  She did not make much pottery and, in the 1920s, signed her pottery, “Simona M.” She had married again in the 1930s, and her last name became Naranjo.